Reasons For the Slow Growth of Entrepreneurs in India

The definition says, Entrepreneurs assemble and allocate resources including innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods. The saying goes like "Take the plunge and lead the way". An entrepreneur is definitely not afraid to take the plunge.

Why is the Indian entrepreneurship scene so grim?

There are many obstructions that ail a budding entrepreneur in India. That's not to say that there are not any entrepreneurs in India. It is just that the number is of entrepreneurs springing up is not that encouraging a figure.

Let us look into some of the reasons.

1. Lack of family support: This is an issue that's plaguing entrepreneurs worldwide more so in India because of the stronger family ties that we Indians have. Family support is always absent in cases. Parents always prefer their progenies to take up a standard 9-5 job rather than take up a risky business venture where there is absolutely no guarantee that the venture will work out and there is always a very high level of risk involved.

2. Government regulations: The few ventures that break free from the shackles of the usual problems get entangled in the antiquated policies of our government. The very fabric our administrative system hinders the organic development of entrepreneurial ventures.

3. Lack of Internet penetration in India: World over the majority of the innovations occur in the internet space. In India the internet usage percentage stands at a meager 5% and this is number makes it really difficult to bring in money and the few entrepreneurial ventures that actually get graced by venture capitalists run in to problem later on during the course of operation.

4. Indian education system: The main reason there is very low innovation in this field is because of our educational system. Right from its inception our educational system has hardly had any focus on innovation. It is like we have been trained in rote learning rather than apply our minds. Without a killer innovative idea there is no way an entrepreneurial venture can sustain itself beyond the initial stages.

There are basically two types of the entrepreneurs

1. Those who come out with a completely new idea

2. Those who bring in a new idea and tweak it for the targeted market.

India being a developing nation has not made much progress in the innovative direction. Since the technology in India is basically playing catch up to the developed countries, there is not much we have achieved in terms of the new ideas.

The most basic way Indian entrepreneurs can succeed is by trying to adopt methods and models that are already successful abroad and adapt it for the Indian market. This will definitely mean a low initial cost. If done well this can definitely lead to really good returns.

Most of all what we really need is to mold young minds and encourage them to think differently. They should be encouraged to let go of their inhibitions and actually take the plunge and tread a path that's not yet been explored. This has been made possible by the starting of Entrepreneurship courses that are being taken up by colleges at the graduate and post graduate level.

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How to Avoid the Risk of Unclear Requirements in Offshore Web Development Projects

It is common in IT industry to hear complaints from clients about the poor quality of the solutions or about receiving unwanted solutions that do not match with their requirements. However, the reality is that most of the outsourced projects fall short of their purpose not because of the inferior capabilities, but because the project requirements were not properly understood by the development company.

Unclear requirements have been one of most prominent reasons for inferior solutions in offshore web development model. Poorly defined requirements on the part of the clients are usually the case in failed projects. How can you expect to obtain proper solutions when you can not even define your requirements? This usually happens when the client is running out of time and wants very quick solutions. They usually skip the proper requirement gathering and analysis part or just skim through the documentation of project requirements in order to get quick solutions. However, this is a perfect recipe for complete disaster.

This does not means that you have to define the specifications in overly detailed manner for even mediocre projects, but it means that you can not expect an effective solution from a one page project concept. The clearer the project specifications are defined since the beginning, the easier it would be for project managers and developers to understand your requirements and work accordingly.
Now the question here is how you can avoid the risk of unclear requirements in offshore web development projects. Mentioned below are some tips that will help you in doing so:

Giving Some Extra Time To The Requirements Gathering Phase: When you outsource web development projects, make sure that the project manager from the development firm interviews some potential users and finds out the desired features and functionalities for the new software. The software would be most probably used by your employees therefore the project manager should try to understand your business requirements, the user interfaces that are required and the high level requirements of the completed system. It is very important that the manager makes a proper documentation of all the requirements along with any milestones that may be helpful in determining the performance. Further, also make sure that he documents the number of users that are expected to be using the software and exactly how they will be using it.

Requirement Analysis: Once the requirements are gathered it is time to analyze these requirements to determine the feasibility of the software. It is very important to make sure whether the project is even feasible or not before you start working on it. The web development company also needs to determine the acceptability of the proposed solution and the ability to implement it.

Requirement Inspection: In this section, the web development company needs to review the requirements that are proposed by the clients and try to identify any ambiguities or discrepancies in the requirements. Further, they should also determine plan for handling any errors or issues that may arise during the development of the project.

Clients should make sure that their requirements are clear to them and to the web development company when they outsource web development requirements to offshore vendors. As you are not physically available to the vendor therefore it is required that you make most effective use of latest communication and data sharing technologies to provide clear requirements to the development team.

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Revealing The Top 5 UX Design Trends To Follow In 2017

Fads are meant to fade. Trends make entry to exit. Being concerned with the similar fashion, it becomes gruesome to follow the hierarchy of elements that binds a rudimentary design. Since 2017 is on the tip, and web design industry is also ready with the key changes and updates to roll out in the successive year. Here is the list aggregating the User Interface UI design trends that will make the developers think twice before using. Take a sneak peek.

  1. ODD COLORS AND BOLD TYPOGRAPHY

This year we all have used and seen the domination of super rich and bold color tones brightening up the user interfaces, the penchant of these vibrant hues has even confirmed its effortless presence in the leading year, thereby, opening the gateways for more bright interfaces, vivid color palettes, duotones and bold gradients in UIs.

Additionally, Typography is accentuating the tones and styles of the websites by giving the websites a personality. Prediction reveals 2017 will pick up handcrafted types in designs.

  1. MOBILE-FIRST DESIGN

Although mobile-first or responsive design is something which has been around for a few years, what we predict to see over the coming year is an even bigger uptake of responsive with the backing of progressive web apps and accelerated web pages.

Note: Progressive Web Apps describe a collection of technologies, design concepts, and Web APIs that work in tandem to provide an app-like experience on the mobile web.

  1. BESPOKE ILLUSTRATIONS

Forget the days when one had to research stock imagery, videos, and icons to convey a product functionality or service explanation. Today customers and users seek authenticity and immaculateness from the brands they use.

Infographics, vertical scrolling, icons, animated elements, and bespoke illustrations, creative visuals which are playful and friendly enough can add an element of fun while maintaining the authenticity.

  1. VIDEO WILL RULE

A moving image immediately grabs the users’ attention, taking them across the brands constructed message and story. Video is a versatile medium that plays a role of conduit in story-telling, marketing and vlogging. Above all, there is no need to read, search, or scroll for the information with it. It is dynamic and engaging.

  1. RAPID PROTOTYPING

Rapid prototyping is the process of quickly mocking up the future state of a system, be it a website or application, and validating it with the client and broader team of users, stakeholders, web developers and UI designers. Adopting this method saves hours of work and rapidly and iteratively generates feedback in the process, improving the final design and reducing the need for changes during development.

So, basically you will see a shift from prototyping to rapid prototyping, thereby, eliminating any pressing setbacks in the project.

All in all, there will be hundreds of trends going in at this time in order to chase the clean web design movement of 2017. The proliferation of mobile and tablet devices whose screen sizes used to dictate simpler navigation and layout options will now be more simplified to deliver the subdued experience to the users.

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Edit Website Online: It’s Easy, Affordable, and Convenient

Just when you thought the hard part of designing and launching your website was done, you’ve come to realize that maintaining it can be just as equally challenging.

It’s this ongoing concern, and inevitable frustration, that leads many website owners to shell out a ton of cash in order for someone else to make the needed changes they need on their website.

What many website owners don’t know, or are beginning to discover, is that now, you can edit your website yourself, anytime you want, and from anywhere. All by using an online website editor.

But Why Should You Edit A Website Online?

  • It’s the easiest way to edit your website
  • You don’t have to download any software
  • You don’t need any training
  • You don’t need to learn any programming languages, or deal with any code

How Does It Work?

You wont believe it until you try it. And in most cases you can for free. It’s simple. What you get is a way to login to your website, decide what you want to have edited and make your changes directly to the site.

There’s also a little “Edit This Page” link you get, and you can stick it in your browsers tool bar. Anytime you need to make a change to your website, you simple click on that button.

No need to deal with any html code if you don’t want to. No need to download anything. You can make unlimited changes to your site, at anytime, from anywhere, and you don’t have to wait on anyone to get it done for you. You are in control.

Details, Details, Details

Imagine being able to, for the most part, be in full control of your website, without the hassle of refocusing on becoming a technology expert? That’s not why you launched your website, right?

Here are just a some examples of some of the most common changes people make when they edit their website online.

  • Edit text
  • Make links
  • Insert pictures, and videos
  • Add a Google calendar to a website
  • Easily add a social media widget
  • Add Google Analytics to a website
  • Start a blog
  • Launch landing pages

These are just some of the changes that are possible when you edit your website online.

Once you have made your changes, you can preview your changes, and then if all looks well, you click publish.

All of your changes are then live on your website!

What If You Make A Mistake?

Once website owners get past the ability to have such control over their website, the next question is often, is it safe? What is you make a change, and then realize you messed up, or simply want to revert back to an earlier version of your website?

You don’t have to worry. Even if you make a change you end up regretting, the online website editor saves earlier versions of your website, just in case you need to revert back to an earlier version.

You also have the ability to get in touch with a real web designer who can help you with any internet web related issues you run into.

So before, one had to depend fully on a web designer to build and manage their website. It was expensive, and sometimes frustrating and impractical to rely on someone else just to make the many changes a website owner is expected to make on a month to month basis.

Now the best of both worlds is available. You are able to have the control and edit your website online, but you also have the option to contact someone for help.

It’s that simple.

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History of the Camera

Early cameras of the 16th and 17th century were able to project images onto paper or glass but the study of capturing, processing and printing the images took many more years. Up until the 17th century, scientists believed that light was composed basically of the 'white' that is perceived by the human eye. It took the research done by famous physicist Isaac Newton to discover that light is actually composed of a spectrum of colors. While he made a big contribution to the study of optics (that is at the core of camera advances) with this discovery, Newton did not actually have anything to do with camera development per se.

The early camera that first became a phenomenon was a little more than a pinhole camera and can be traced back to 1558. It was called the Camera Obscura. The Camera Obscura was seen as a drawing tool for a clearer and realistic portrayal of objects. It was in the early 19th century that an invention named the Camera Lucida was introduced by Cambridge scientist William Hyde Wollaston that consisted of an optical device that could help an artist view a distant scene or person or object on a paper surface that he or she was using to draw. In other words the artist gets to view a superimposed image of a subject on paper and this image could be effectively used to attempt to draw, trace or paint it. Both the Camera Obscura and the Camera Lucida provided an image that was temporary, which could not be lastingly captured on to paper for later reference.

Studies however continued well into the 1800's on how to actually capture the image onto material. It was during this time, around 1822 that French researcher Joseph Nicephore Niepce, created the first photograph by using paper that was coated with a chemical. The image would not stay permanently on the paper and would disappear after a short while. Even so, despite the short-lived nature of the image, the concept of photography was born with this experiment and paved the way for further study and development in this field.

Capturing images to retain them longer and permanently became the next big quest for researchers. Another Frenchman Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre partnered with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1829, to develop the process of creating permanent photographs. Joseph Niépce died in 1833 but Daguerre continued with the work and succeeded in 1837 after many long years of experimentation. The process of capturing photographic images that would not fade away, introduced by Daguerre came to be known as the 'daguerreotype'.

The word 'photography' was coined by scientist Sir John FW Herschel in 1839 and it is actually is derived from two Greek words 'photos' meaning light and 'graphein' meaning draw.

A slightly more advanced version of the daguerreotype called the Calotype process that makes multiple copies possible using the negative and positive method became available very soon after. In fact, it was during the 1840's that the use of photographic images in advertisements first started and cameras made their mark on the power of visual communication. It was not much later, in the 1850's that photographers first started experimenting with underwater photography of seascapes.

Up until 1850, the process of capturing images was cumbersome requiring upto half an hour of light exposure. The discovery made in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer was a blessing since the new method termed the Collodion process called for just 2-3 seconds of light exposure to capture an image.

Prior to 1871, photographers went through a development process where they had to coat the plate with wet chemical each and every time and process the image immediately. With the invention the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process by Richard Leach Maddox, negatives did not have to be developed immediately. This was an important discovery since up until then the captured image had to be processed instantly.

Kodak created in 1888 by George Eastman has been a modern day pioneer of sorts in cameras and photography for the masses. George Eastman and the scientists who worked with him at Kodak developed the photographic film in 1889 and made it available in rolls for the mass use of consumers. An important milestone in our entertainment and communication history was the development of transparent roll film by Eastman. This development led to another key invention – the motion picture camera by Thomas Edison's in 1891.

-> Modern Times

During the 20th century the pace of technology development in cameras and photography continued at an accelerated pace much like many other key technology developments. While several key inventions like car, telephone and the gramophone record happened in the later half of the 19th century, it is the last 100 years that saw major developmental work in many areas of communications technology and as well as in other fields – TV, aircrafts , PCs, digital technology, digital cameras, mobile phones, fax machines and the internet, to name a few.

In the case of the camera, the developments simplified the whole process of photography, making it accessible to one and all at affordable prices and the camera industry denizens of our times made it into a mass phenomenon. The first mass use camera became available at the turn of the 20th century and can be traced back to the year 1900. There are hundreds of models of cameras available today both for the amateur as well as the professional and the camera is an important part of any family's repertoire of must have gadgets.

-> 20th century chronology in the history of the camera:

1913: 35 mm still-camera created

1927: The flash bulb introduced by General Electric Co. (The concept of camera flash existed much before but was based on the use of a flash light powder that was invented by German researchers)

1935- 1941: Kodak starts marketing Kodachrome film and subsequently launches Kodacolor negative film. Canon released the Hansa Canon in 1936, the first 35mm focal-plane shutter camera.

1948: The concept of the Polaroid camera is introduced in the market. American scientist Edwin Land developed the process for instant photography. Later Polaroid Corporation developed the 'instant color' film around 1963.

1957: Frenchman Jaques Yves Cousteau invented the first waterproof 35mm camera for underwater photography named the Calypso Phot. The actual camera was developed by the Belgian airplane technical designer Jean de Wouters based on the blueprint and suggestions given to him by Cousteau.

1972: The electronic camera that does not require film was created and patented by Texas Instruments. This is however not the same as a digital camera though you do not require film in digital cameras as well. The launch of the digital camera is still many years away.

1975: Kodak's experiments with digital imaging kicked off around the mid seventies but it will take another 20 years before a digital camera for the home consumer market is launched.

1978 – 1980: Asian players like Konica and Sony begin to make their mark. The 'point and shoot' automatic focus camera is launched by Konica while Sony starts talking about the camcorder and demonstrates a prototype.

1981: Sony launches a commercially available electronic still camera. Similar to the 1972 invention by Texas Instruments, the Sony electronic camera came with a mini disc on which images were recorded and stored. The recorded images could be later printed or viewed on a monitor using a reader device.

1985: Digital processing technology makes its entry. Digital imaging and processing is introduced by Pixar.

1986: The camera industry becomes even more consumer focused and taps the fun and travel connotations behind camera usage, with the launch of the concept of the disposable single use cameras. Fuji is credited with the development of this concept.

Also in 1986 – 1987, Kodak started taking giant strides in digital development. Digital means, the photographic image is divided into tiny units of dots or squares known as pixels. Pixels are the programmable units of an image that can be processed by computers. Each image could be made up of millions of pixels. The use of pixels in digital technology allows storing large volumes of pixels to deliver high definition print quality.

1990: Kodak introduces Photo CD's. It is a system of storing photographic images on CD and then viewing them on a computer. With this development the user-friendly approach of the camera industry began to take concrete shape.

1991: Kodak introduces a digital camera targeted at professionals and journalists. Kodak is credited with the invention of a pixel based camera technology known to us as the digital camera. Digital cameras do not use film similar to their predecessor electronic cameras but the storage method is entirely different and the final photograph is of much higher resolution. In a digital camera photos are recorded and stored in digital form. This digital data can be transferred to a computer and processed for printing. Kodak and Canon are well known digital camera manufacturers and there are also several other key brands as well.

1994: The Apple QuickTake camera, a home use digital camera is launched. This is followed by the launch of a clutch of home use digital cameras by Casio, Kodak and others in quick succession during 1995 -'96.

-> The digital era:

The development of digital camera technology is considered to be linked to the development of TV and Video technology. The principles of transmission and recording of audio-visual images using digital electrical impulses finds use in camera imaging as well.

Through the 1990's the developments continued in camera technology, the focus now shifting to the field of digital imaging which is where the future lies. Use-friendly features like software that can download digital images directly from camera onto home computers for storing and sharing on the internet is the new norm in the market place.

The camera, the computer, the software industry and the worldwide web are today irrevocably interlinked to empower the user in experiencing the benefits of camera usage to full potential. The innovation that sparked many an invention in the camera industry found its way into the digital world as well and continued among digital camera manufacturers. During 2001, the Kodak and Microsoft partnership ensured that digital camera manufacturers could use the power of Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) standard through Windows. The digital photo experience is a key visual driver in the Internet era. Many of Kodak digital camera models with EasyShare capabilities are compatible with Windows XP. The Kodak EasyShare software enables users to transfer digital camera pictures directly from camera to their computers and then print the pictures or even email them.

Manufacturers in a related industry like the printing industry have adapted their products to be in sync with the images created by digital cameras. Cell phone manufacturers have tied up with digital camera manufacturers to develop new age camera phones in recent years. These camera phones can capture images and share the images through the cell phone.

Among the 21st century digital developments are the advanced product offerings from digital cameras manufacturers and these are sure to occupy an important place in the ensuing history of camera development. For instance, the Kodak Professional DCS Pro SLR / c is a high-end digital camera and the Kodak website calls the DCS Pro SLR models the most feature-rich digital cameras on the market. It has an image sensor that can handle 13.89 million pixels and this makes it the highest resolution digital camera available. High resolution determines the sharpness or level of detail in photographic images. This is just a glimpse of the capabilities that digital technology places in a user's hands. Digital camera sales figures for 2003 show that the two key players Kodak and Canon have recorded impressive growth.

-> What does the future holds for camera users?

The features offered by digital cameras can be quite mind-boggling for the average user and pretty exciting for most pros. Four key ongoing camera developments that are likely to further improve the process of photography:

1. Greater resolution from even the simplest, low cost camera models

2. Usage in any type of lighting conditions,

3. Compatibility across a range of software, hardware and image types

4. Rich colors and tone

While the higher-end digital evolution continues, the prices of the simple camera have crashed to such an extent that even children and teens are proud owners of uncomplicated cameras. The camera and photography interest starts young and this creates a truly large audience base for the camera industry.

And throughout history, it is evident that the endeavor of researchers and developers has been to make the camera available to a wide section of society. Without camera technology and photography, the other key developments of cinema and TV would have been delayed and what a boring place the world would have been without TV and films !!

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Importance of Communicating Your Needs to Your Web Designer

Communication is the key to success in any business. In order to accomplish a great web designing assignment, clients and web designers should have good communication between them. Otherwise, the web designer may never know what the exact expectations of the clients are from the website. The success of web design services depends a lot on this communication.

Your Vision

In order to make the website reflect your vision, it is very important that you communicate the same to the web designing professional. Unless you convey your thoughts, the designer would not have any idea about what the site should stand for. Moreover, it is your site and your business. The designer is just there to help you. But you will need to be proactive about passing your thoughts to the designer to get a good end product.

Sharing Ideas

Communication between companies providing web services and their clients can turn into very fruitful brain storming sessions. As a client, you may know perfectly well about your vision and the kind of links you would like to get. But what you do not know is how to implement all this, and it is here that the web designer comes into play. Now, you can communicate your ideas to the designer and check their feasibility. The professional designer may suggest you some different course that may be more beneficial for the website.

Talking about Budgets

It is only through communication that you can let the designer know about the kind of money you can really spend on the project. This is essential because the budget will decide how much of your current vision can be implemented. Web services can be expensive depending on the size, complexities, and designing aesthetics of the site. You should be clear about the budget, and make an effort to get the best within it. Many competent companies offering design services have unique designs for each of its clients based on their budgetary constraints, which does not compromise on the quality.

When Should I Start Communicating?

You should start communicating as early as possible. In fact, it is advised that you start it even before appointing a web designer. Talking with more than one designer will give you an idea about the budget and the practicability of your vision. This will also help you choose the most suitable providers of web services for you. Whether you are practicing law or pursuing any other profession, you should start talking to your web designers right now.

Communication for Revision

This is another reason for communicating. Your site will be ready only after you revise it. This process will help you find out whether the designer has been able to incorporate your vision or thoughts in the website. Companies, due to their vast experience in the fields of web design services, always ask for client feedback at every stage of the development. In case you feel that something is not coming up as you had visualized it or you have any doubts, convey them to the designer.

Next time you hire a professional for design services, make sure that you keep the communication channels open. This way, you will see how the entire process becomes a smooth sailing affair.

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The Growth and Development of the Automobile Industry – A Deeper Insight

The word "Automobile" has its origins in Greek and Latin and it has become an integral part of every man's life. It has become so indispensable that on an average, a person spends at least 3 hours in his vehicle every day. Automobile was once thought of as a luxury and only a select few could indulge in. Now, the times have changed and automobiles have become a means of transportation catering to the vast majority.

The transformation from luxury to inevitability

Automobiles, in general, refer to the humble car and the estimates suggest that there is a car for every eleven persons on earth amounting up to 590 million passenger cars. There are various variants of automobiles that cater to every cross section of the population. There are variants that could set you back by a couple of million dollars and other models that cost you a few thousand dollars.

The technological advances in the automobile sector have been tremendous in the last 100 years. The century's greatest invention or advancement should definitely belong to the automobile industry. One of the earliest pioneers of the automobile Industry was Ransom Olds from the Oldsmobile factory. In the early 1900's, he introduced the Production Line concept, thus churning out vehicles every few minutes. This idea was greatly revolutionized and implemented by Henry Ford, who elevated automobile industry to the next level. Ford quickly grew in the first half of 20th century and slowly but steadily spread globally.

Growing along with time

With advancement of age, the automobile industry gradually grew in continental Europe and England. Japan introduced quality initiatives that further enhanced the industry. Toyoto from Japan were the pioneers of Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, which have been the guiding principles of the automobile industry for the last 50 years. Today, Toyoto are the world's biggest automobile company according to recent market estimates.

The global boom of the 1980's was largely because of the automobile revolution. Ford, General Motors and Chrysler, the big 3 automotive giants of America, had a huge say on the country's economy. They decided the health of the economy and the recent global economic recession has affected them badly. This has made them approach the government for loans and benefits, which have been fulfilled by the government after placing appropriate clauses.

Advent of technology and innovations

Automobile has transcended from being a medium of transportation to a medium of entertainment after the advent of super fast cars competing against each other. NASCAR and F1 races are huge crowd pullers every year. People have made fortunes and drivers of these machines have made their name in history. The fact that automobile racing involves huge costs has made the racing industry reel in these uncertain economic times. The sport has seen tragedies with loss of life in some instances. This has made room for strict safety regulations, which are now mandatory for all the automobile shows.

The negative part

Although man has made a huge leap forward with automobiles, there is a downside to this technological wonder. The emissions from these machines have raised serious environmental concerns with calls for more eco-friendly vehicles. Automobile companies have invested hugely in research and development of eco-friendly vehicles. Except for this single downside, there is slightest of doubts to say that automobiles have been the find of the previous century.

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Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania's exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3 + consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president JK Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (eg internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions , international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education eg traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.

5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values ​​and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.

The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values ​​of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.

The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.

6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.

The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values ​​and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values ​​and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.

The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have "local seeds" to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some "local seeds" that may be to exist local demands and values ​​to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values ​​as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.

The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.

The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.

The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.

The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values ​​can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values ​​can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values ​​and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.

Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)

7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on "Ujamaa" (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the "Ujamaa" ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society can not segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.

7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers' Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education ( FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.

7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching / learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.

The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).

7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.

7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.

7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania's education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross / net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960's and early 1970s', grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (Ibid)

7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input / output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency / mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.

7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).

8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.

Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).

9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts
Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004: 1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as "the new managerial responsibilities". These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.

10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership

10.1. Prospects
The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania

10.2. Challenges
Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.

11. Conclusion
There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A "free market" dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world's population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.

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7 Top Tips For A Website Designer To Build Great Websites

1. What Are The Objectives Of The Website?

You should plan your website carefully and think about your goals, what you want your site to do and the keywords to rank for. Although these may seem like obvious questions, many websites fail because their goals and objectives are not included in the website design

2. Identify Your Target Audience

Your website should be designed for your clients and therefore, it is essential that you identify and understand your client base that you want to capture. Your audience could be from several categories and as such, the reasons why they visit your website may vary widely. Therefore, you will need to consider this and design your website accordingly using colours, fonts and especially the message that you want to convey.

3. Convert Visitors Into Valuable Business

Your web readers can convert to real purchasers in several ways such as purchasing a service or product directly, downloading information, signing up for promotions or joining your mailing list. The point is that by taking the simple step of visiting your website, they have also taken the initial step of being a potential customer. It is safe to say that a good website designer will create a website that provides the right amount of information to the client for them to react accordingly.

4. Successful Branding

A company brand is more than simply a logo. There are many components your website needs to convey such as the manner in which you communicate your message to your visitors. It should instil confidence and assurance to the client that your brand has high values and provides a high quality service or product. All of this has to be conveyed in a manner of seconds otherwise, your viewer will simply move on-to another website.

5. Have A Site That Shouts

Spend time and thought in your website design. Analyse your competition and work out how your site can be different in such a way that will engage the customer and make them want to know more about your company and products. Again, your design will be a factor in whether a customer stays on your site or moves on.

6. Navigate Clearly

Your website should be designed so that a visitor can easily navigate between pages and find what they are looking for. Don’t add unnecessary content for the sake of it because this just clutters your site and makes it more difficult for your user to find what they are looking for. the result could be that they simply move on to your competitors website.

7. Good Content

Make sure that your web content is up-to-date and relevant to your business. Ensure it is updated regularly so that your visitors can see your information is current. It goes without saying that the content should be well constructed, have good grammar and free from spelling mistakes.

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Application for Rapid Product Development

Rapid product development can be explained as inventing new product and services to the global market cost effectively and quickly than its major competitors by having a strategic and competitive advantage. The key aspect of the rapid product development process is that the application of rapid advanced manufacturing technology and applications to the product manufacturing processes takes place at ease. The parametric growth of rapid product development techniques in web based applications has become a multitasking approach in SEO environments.

Rapid product development (RPD) and multitasking approaches have become centrally fused and marginally integrated to such an extent that both processes and applications have an extra dimension in intrinsically and extrinsically dynamic RPD related SEO environments. For instance Amazon and Accenture Management Consultancy, the world's biggest management consultancy firm, have adopted RPD techniques that share an identical growth trajectory in both target marketing and SEO related concept development.

Amazon's Kindle and Wal-Mart's customer relations management (CRM) software has been developed on the same line as that of Microsoft's super brand related customer value creations dynamics. Ever since Wal-Mart launched its RPD applications on a newer SEO platform, its sales volume has been rising faster. In fact Wal-Mart's RPD applications have become a threat to Amazon. In this instance rapid application development, product design and development require SEO processes to be highly articulated in terms of CRM and CMS (Content Management Systems). In such situation SEO architecture can be both costs inefficient and less dynamic depending on the availability of flexible and variable design and development techniques.

Rapid product development and rapid application developments are synonymous. However the latter concept has been used by industry experts to make reference to applications related to SEO environments that are highly characterized by modally segregated applications and systems. For instance Amazon's RAD process on its globally famous Kindle platform has all the advanced characteristics of a modern SEO architecture. Its applications have often been criticized for both non conformance and non integrity in keeping with facilitating function based environments. The process of bringing the products in to the global market and developing them according to the international standards cost effectively is the biggest problems in the modern world.

Many advanced tools have been developed in the global market with the latest technology. Thus the applications can be both dynamic and static. For example dynamic applications can be seen in satellite communications and related applications. By adopting rapid product development strategies, companies can gain the strategic advantage and a better position in the global market place quicker than their competitors. For instance effective execution of the process allows the company to develop their products to be marketed within a few days ahead of the competitors. The key aspect of effective rapid product development is that the effective application of prototyping and advanced manufacturing technologies.

Thus the multitasking environment of the SEO enables to attract customers' attraction to the specific products that have been launched in the global market. One of the best web based applications to be used for the product development is the BugTracker.Net which is an efficient tracker used by thousands of development and support teams around the world. This enables the user to maintain and manage sound customer relations in order to facilitate the product development and increase the profitability of the corporation. This specifically determines the product design and development, process where innovative product needs have been met in keeping with the multitudinal concepts and reliable theories in the differentiation of the market and the leadership. A particular design team with vast industrial experience can adopt CRM strategies in order to find the ultimate solutions to the complex problems.

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