Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania's exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3 + consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president JK Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (eg internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions , international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education eg traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.

5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values ​​and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.

The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values ​​of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.

The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.

6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.

The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values ​​and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values ​​and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.

The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have "local seeds" to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some "local seeds" that may be to exist local demands and values ​​to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values ​​as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.

The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.

The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.

The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.

The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values ​​can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values ​​can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values ​​and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.

Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)

7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on "Ujamaa" (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the "Ujamaa" ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society can not segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.

7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers' Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education ( FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.

7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching / learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.

The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).

7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.

7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.

7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania's education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross / net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960's and early 1970s', grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (Ibid)

7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input / output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency / mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.

7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).

8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.

Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).

9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts
Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004: 1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as "the new managerial responsibilities". These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.

10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership

10.1. Prospects
The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania

10.2. Challenges
Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.

11. Conclusion
There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A "free market" dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world's population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.

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7 Top Tips For A Website Designer To Build Great Websites

1. What Are The Objectives Of The Website?

You should plan your website carefully and think about your goals, what you want your site to do and the keywords to rank for. Although these may seem like obvious questions, many websites fail because their goals and objectives are not included in the website design

2. Identify Your Target Audience

Your website should be designed for your clients and therefore, it is essential that you identify and understand your client base that you want to capture. Your audience could be from several categories and as such, the reasons why they visit your website may vary widely. Therefore, you will need to consider this and design your website accordingly using colours, fonts and especially the message that you want to convey.

3. Convert Visitors Into Valuable Business

Your web readers can convert to real purchasers in several ways such as purchasing a service or product directly, downloading information, signing up for promotions or joining your mailing list. The point is that by taking the simple step of visiting your website, they have also taken the initial step of being a potential customer. It is safe to say that a good website designer will create a website that provides the right amount of information to the client for them to react accordingly.

4. Successful Branding

A company brand is more than simply a logo. There are many components your website needs to convey such as the manner in which you communicate your message to your visitors. It should instil confidence and assurance to the client that your brand has high values and provides a high quality service or product. All of this has to be conveyed in a manner of seconds otherwise, your viewer will simply move on-to another website.

5. Have A Site That Shouts

Spend time and thought in your website design. Analyse your competition and work out how your site can be different in such a way that will engage the customer and make them want to know more about your company and products. Again, your design will be a factor in whether a customer stays on your site or moves on.

6. Navigate Clearly

Your website should be designed so that a visitor can easily navigate between pages and find what they are looking for. Don’t add unnecessary content for the sake of it because this just clutters your site and makes it more difficult for your user to find what they are looking for. the result could be that they simply move on to your competitors website.

7. Good Content

Make sure that your web content is up-to-date and relevant to your business. Ensure it is updated regularly so that your visitors can see your information is current. It goes without saying that the content should be well constructed, have good grammar and free from spelling mistakes.

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Application for Rapid Product Development

Rapid product development can be explained as inventing new product and services to the global market cost effectively and quickly than its major competitors by having a strategic and competitive advantage. The key aspect of the rapid product development process is that the application of rapid advanced manufacturing technology and applications to the product manufacturing processes takes place at ease. The parametric growth of rapid product development techniques in web based applications has become a multitasking approach in SEO environments.

Rapid product development (RPD) and multitasking approaches have become centrally fused and marginally integrated to such an extent that both processes and applications have an extra dimension in intrinsically and extrinsically dynamic RPD related SEO environments. For instance Amazon and Accenture Management Consultancy, the world's biggest management consultancy firm, have adopted RPD techniques that share an identical growth trajectory in both target marketing and SEO related concept development.

Amazon's Kindle and Wal-Mart's customer relations management (CRM) software has been developed on the same line as that of Microsoft's super brand related customer value creations dynamics. Ever since Wal-Mart launched its RPD applications on a newer SEO platform, its sales volume has been rising faster. In fact Wal-Mart's RPD applications have become a threat to Amazon. In this instance rapid application development, product design and development require SEO processes to be highly articulated in terms of CRM and CMS (Content Management Systems). In such situation SEO architecture can be both costs inefficient and less dynamic depending on the availability of flexible and variable design and development techniques.

Rapid product development and rapid application developments are synonymous. However the latter concept has been used by industry experts to make reference to applications related to SEO environments that are highly characterized by modally segregated applications and systems. For instance Amazon's RAD process on its globally famous Kindle platform has all the advanced characteristics of a modern SEO architecture. Its applications have often been criticized for both non conformance and non integrity in keeping with facilitating function based environments. The process of bringing the products in to the global market and developing them according to the international standards cost effectively is the biggest problems in the modern world.

Many advanced tools have been developed in the global market with the latest technology. Thus the applications can be both dynamic and static. For example dynamic applications can be seen in satellite communications and related applications. By adopting rapid product development strategies, companies can gain the strategic advantage and a better position in the global market place quicker than their competitors. For instance effective execution of the process allows the company to develop their products to be marketed within a few days ahead of the competitors. The key aspect of effective rapid product development is that the effective application of prototyping and advanced manufacturing technologies.

Thus the multitasking environment of the SEO enables to attract customers' attraction to the specific products that have been launched in the global market. One of the best web based applications to be used for the product development is the BugTracker.Net which is an efficient tracker used by thousands of development and support teams around the world. This enables the user to maintain and manage sound customer relations in order to facilitate the product development and increase the profitability of the corporation. This specifically determines the product design and development, process where innovative product needs have been met in keeping with the multitudinal concepts and reliable theories in the differentiation of the market and the leadership. A particular design team with vast industrial experience can adopt CRM strategies in order to find the ultimate solutions to the complex problems.

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Five Logo Design Principles Every Graphic Designer Should Follow

Logo design requires more than artistic talent to create an emblem or a brand that will capture the market’s attention. Like in any artistic field, effective logo design follows five fundamental principles that every graphic designer should know. These principles may serve as criteria for judging whether the design effectively conveys the message to its target audience.

Logos should be simple and easily recognizable.

An effective logo design puts together elements in a simple setting that is easily recognizable to anyone who sees it. The sign should be easily identifiable to people from different cultures or cities. The design elements cross boundaries of geography, culture, age and educational background.

Logos should be distinctive and clear.

Aside from simplicity, an effective design should be unique and deliver a clear message to its target audience. The overall design should be easily memorable for anyone who sees it. Too many elements can crowd the design and produce visual noise, which blocks the marketing message the logo tries to convey.

Logos should be timeless.

Another measure of effectiveness is the timelessness of a brand, which appeals to the tastes of future generations. As long as the branding follows the rules of simplicity, distinctiveness and clarity, the logo will survive other eras. For example, the logos of Chanel, Mercedes-Benz, Nike and Shell did not change much through the years. Their classic designs continue to appeal to generations of consumers.

Logos should be versatile.

Logo design makes use of vector art more than photography because of scaling and applicability problems. Logos created with high-definition imaging software scale down to a smaller size without destroying the logo’s design. The use of photographs, however, brings problems of pixelated and skewed images. Thus, all logos use vector graphics for creating images.

An effective logo design should also factor in the way images are transferred from one media to another. A good logo created in the vector format may be used for websites and for marketing and packaging. The colors used should not change in hue when displayed on a website page and on a poster or a streamer in public.

Logos should be appropriate for their intended audience.

Logos should speak to its intended audience. The type of font, the vector images and the colors used should match the demographics of the product’s target market. The meaning should be immediately apparent to the logo’s intended audience. For example, sports logos often signify explosive movement, which reflects athleticism. In another example, children’s products use bright colors and fun fonts to appeal to children.

In general, the type of content in a logo does not necessarily convey the actual products sold or the services rendered by a company or business. A restaurant logo does not need to include food or a software logo does not need to use an image of a computer or laptop to let people know what it is. By way of example, in its logo design Apple uses the image of an apple, which someone obviously has bitten in one corner.

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How Much Should a Logo Design Cost?

How much does it cost to get a logo designed for your business? The correct answer to this question is anywhere from nothing up to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

You could generalize and say that you get what you pay for. This statement would be true 70% of the time but there are definitely many cases where people spend a lot of money and get rubbish and cases where people spend only a little and get a real branding jewel that works wonders for their business. So it is worth putting some thought into the process of choosing a designer.

Here are some factors that will affect the price that you pay for a logo.

1) The free model – Do it yourself logo design templates are available online for little of no cost. You can throw something together with some clip-art, customize the name and you’re away laughing. The downside is that you won’t be able to trademark the design and without schooling in good design practice your results will likely be amateurish. Some cheaper logo companies will put something together for you but they will sell the same logo many times over so you are not getting something original that can be copyrighted. Going for a custom logo design is the best option as you will have a designer put something unique together that is taylor-made to your company branding needs.

2) Meeting face to face – If you go for a local designer you will benefit from face to face consultations to discuss the project but this comes at a price. Online logo design firms cut costs by avoiding coffee drinking sessions with clients and will still understand your needs from the briefing form that you fill out online. Web based designers also cut overheads by working in back offices instead of fancy design studios.

3) Location of the company – Western designers usually understand how to brand western companies better than foreigners, however there are some great designers in places like the Philippines and India who will work for much cheaper. The problem here is that if you are sued for trademark infringement you will not be able to take legal action against them if they are outside the US. Local designers will always confirm that you will indeed own the rights to your unique logo design.

4) Service level – The more expensive package you go with the more will be included. Take note of how many designers will work on your case, how many unique initial concepts you will be offered and how many chances you will have to request small changes (rounds of revisions).

Ask about the guarantee policy before you go ahead and order. Find out if they will offer a complete redraw if you don’t like the concept or if they will refund your money in the case that you don’t like what they present to you.

Delivery time can vary between companies and other factors can affect pricing such as the format that you get your files in.

5) Design Quality – Definitely the most important factor in determining how much a logo design should cost. If you are paying top dollar and plan on spending over $1000 you should first seek proof that you will end up with value for money. Check out their design portfolio, ask for references from other customers, find out how experienced and qualified the designers really are and even seek evidence that they have won some design awards or competitions.

Think about why you need the logo. If its just for a website or a short term project you should be fine with some of the cheaper service providers. If, however you are building a future fortune 500 mega-corporation then you may want to spend at least $300 to $400 and possibly a lot more.

Generally you can get a reasonable good custom logo design online for between $25 and $200. The high end operators will tell you that you can only get junk at this price level but in my opinion they are wrong. It is possible to get a great logo online for a low price.

How much should an online logo design cost? As much as you are prepared to pay. But don’t kid yourself that price is everything.

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Web Design or Graphic Design

An excellent website design isn’t just about applying beautiful colors as well as piecing together your navigation menus. Instead, it really is about branding your website in a manner that it appeals to your targeted market. Although graphic design is centered on overall look, it should at the same time, convey a message to your website visitors. Simply by making use of the key points associated with graphic design as part of your website design, you can show your original personality that your website visitors as well as prospective clients can easily relate with and identify effortlessly.

Image Design is the mixture of art work and science to show a message by means of images. It really is acknowledged to be a form of interaction. Ever since the entire world has entered cyberspace era and the majority of companies remain competitive for any attention of the general public via the online world, image design artists are becoming absolutely essential. Creative designers are essential for making captivating website pages. It doesn’t matter just how helpful or even interesting the particular articles of the web site are, it may not really fulfill the required results of the owner when it doesn’t look excellent. Overall look is definitely the most important feature consumers see. Whenever people are searching on the internet they will more than likely look at only websites that will with initial glimpse appear to look excellent.

When you choose to design your web site or perhaps get your image design job conducted by specialists, you have to take into account the variables such as navigation, high quality of content material and also the appearance of the internet site. Although web designer has to pay attention to all of these components, the actual graphic design for your web site needs to be given the same relevance. Image images are the very first thing a new visitor to your site notices, in fact it is due to interesting visual illustrations or photos that the visitor is persuaded to read the written text.

You will find there’s popular debate covering the importance given to artwork design in web sites. Some people argue that without having innovative graphic illustrations or photos, a web site will lose their overall appeal that is necessary to hold visitors’ interest. Other people believe that graphic design is actually given an excessive amount of importance which is rather an overrated service in website design. Even though the two arguments are generally valid in their own meaning, the actual function of graphic design with websites cannot be negated entirely.

Generally, graphic design has been all about creating unique as well as appealing company cards, trademarks, banners as well as other print designs. However, since the surge of the World Wide Web as well as company websites, artwork design has built an inroad throughout web design at the same time. Website design is very different from designing for produce, for this reason, many people prefer to retain the services of web site designers instead of graphic designers with regards to web sites.

There are some aspects in website designing that needs the exclusive expertise of a graphic designer. While web design takes on the most important role in constructing a web site, making it from a technical perspective effective and well-designed, graphic design is often a very helpful assistance that must definitely be utilized to accomplish total victory with your internet site.

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Understanding Mobile Application Development

In today’s time and age, smartphones and applications have gained a lot of popularity. As of now, a mobile phone is not just restricted to make calls. With the help of mobile phone development, individuals and businesses have started creating unique and innovative applications, which facilitate internet browsing, email, faxing, games, graphics and wireless information services. Considering the revolution with handheld devices, mobile application developers are in rage.

Mobile application developers combine different elements to formulate software apps and solutions. Various organizations have started showing interest in business applications and loads of them have started outsourcing their requirements to developers across the globe. A few preferred mobile software solutions include web applications, games and interactive business solutions across different technology platforms. There are a few things you need to consider, before you decide on a specific mobile application.

Platform

Mobile phone applications are different from one platform to another and one cannot devise an application that runs on all platforms. With different companies, the mobile phone platforms are dissimilar and certain applications work with specified technologies only. For an example, an iPhone application cannot work on a Windows Mobile or a Blackberry platform. Therefore, it is imperative to select the ideal mobile platform, before you get started with mobile apps development.

Client Base

Before you get started with a mobile application developer, you must determine the kind of audience you wish to target at. Based on your target audience, you must then decide whether you want applications that could be used by individual consumers or business mobile applications. It would be easier for the mobile application developer to form a work plan, plan on the design and the technology for your mobile software.

Budget & Timing

Before you get started with mobile application development, you must consider the cost of your development as well as the exact time frame to launch a specific product. To begin with, you must do some basic research on the products being used by your competitors along with the price strategy adopted by them. In order to make the most out of your investment, you need to launch your product at the right time. Regardless of where you outsource your application development services, you need to ensure that the application is developed within a predefined timeline.

Features

Wireless applications have revolutionized the way cell phones are being used today. Businesses are now getting interesting apps, which are innovative and unique. The whole purpose of mobile application development is to strike a chord amongst the customers. Businesses require powerful mobile phone applications, which serve a variety of purposes including browsing, gaming, entertainment, search and many more. Mobile application developers can design, create and customize the application in accordance to the client needs. These are professionals who possess the technical as well as the functional expertise to perform simple and complicated tasks. To conclude with, one can access the world with any handheld device today.

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Child Development – Infant Stage

Child development psychology classifies child development in the infancy stage into three sub stages. From birth to fifteen to twenty seconds it's the pertinent period. Until the time the baby emerges from its mother's womb separated by cutting and tying of the umbilical cord, the child is a parasite and makes no adjustments to the postnatal environment. From thirty minutes to the end of two weeks the infant is now separate, independent and individual-no longer a parasite.

Physical development:

The physical growth development is fast with a faster rate in function of nervous system.

Child development behaviors:

All child development theories hint out that infancy stage of child development is the shortest of all developmental periods. Infancy begins with birth and ends when it is two weeks old. It is the time that the fetus must adjust to life outside the uterine walls of the mother after approximately nine months.

i) It requires approximately two weeks to adjusting to the new environment.

ii) Infancy is a plateau in development . The rapid growth and development which took place during the prenatal period suddenly comes to stop with birth. There is a slight regression such as loss of weight, less strong and healthy than it was at the time of birth. This characteristic of plateau is due to the necessity for radical adjustments to the postnatal environment. Once the adjustments are made the infant resumes its growth and development, so no fear is needed about this characteristic.

iii) Infancy is a preview of the later growth development. It is not possible to predict exactly what the future development of the individual ll be on the basis of the development at birth. We notice only a clue of what to expect later on.

iv) The child development period in infancy stage is hazardous both physically and psychologically. Physically the infant finds it difficult in making adjustments to the new environment. Psychologically the infant suffers a little when the attitudes of significant people towards the infant radically changes.

Environment of adjustments:

The infant begins to gain child development skills and make adjustments to the new environment after birth.

i) Change in temperature requires adjustment. There is a constant temperature of 100 * F in the uterine sac and it is 60 to 70 * F in the hospital or at home ii) Breathing by own starts. When the umbilical cord is cut the infant must begin to breathe on its own.

iii) Sucking and swallowing is a self learning development. When the umbilical cord is cut off, the child gets nourishment by the reflexes of sucking and swallowing instead of receiving it from the mother through umbilical cord.

iv) Elimination of waste products begins. Letting out urine and stools is not a matter of adjustment

v) But some infants are seen to have trouble shooting with elimination matters.

Emotional development:

Specific and identifiable emotional changes can not be seen at birth. Anyhow some reactions may be there as facial expressions of pleasantness and unpleasantness. These are characterized by the relaxing and tensing of the body. Whatever may be the stimulus the resultant emotion is intense and instant.

Social development:

There is nothing to tell about this behavior as it's just the starting point.

It's best suggested that the mother maintains a child development chart of everything about the infant child and for achieving the child developmental milestones.

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Affordable Web Hosting Service for Your Business

On a daily basis, thousands of people are registering domain names and hosting their websites for their their personal use or their new business. However, how do you really know where to register your domain name and what service provider to sign up with for your web hosting services.

Here are 6 specific aspects you can look for to help you decide with company you choose to register your domain name and web hosting services.

First, it is necessary to decide on how many domain names you intend on registering and whether the domains will be either personal or for your business. The average cost for registering a domain can be anywhere from $1.00 to $15.00.

And, depending on the business you register, it could cost a fair bit more however, you would be able to find out the cost, once you search and register your domain.

Once your domain is registered, then you will need to direct your domains to a web hosting service company. But, what plan will you purchase and why?

If you have one or two domains, then opt for a basic plan which costs approximately $5.00 per month. You can always upgrade whenever necessary.

There are a few things to watch out for when looking to sign up for a hosting company.

1. Customer Service

One aspect in particular is: customer service. How can you contact the web hosting company? Is it by a 1-800 number or by live chat or both?

2. Hours of Operation

And, when are their hours of operation? Are they open from Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm, or are they open 24 hours per day, 7 days per week? This really makes a difference especially if you require help immediately for your business needs.

3. Amount of Web Space

Amount of web space is also important because if you have a small website 5MB of space will be plenty for your needs. However, a large site might require a bit more especially if you intend on adding a lot of images, videos or sound files.

4. FTP Access

It is necessary to have FTP access, in order to have the ability to upload your website pages easily. This is particularly helpful for web developers as well.

5. Email

Does your web hosting company allow for you to set up an email account and name your email whatever you wish? It is important to be able to select an email name that corresponds with your website in order to look professional as a business.

6. Control Panel

This is also known as the c-panel. It is important to have access to your own c-panel so that you can control adding or deleting passwords, email accounts. You definitely want control over your website so that when you need to make a change, you can quickly log into your account and make the necessary changes. It avoids having to speak with technical support for every change you need to make to your website.

There are other more technical requirements however, those items would be understood and taken care of by the programmer, who will work on and oversee your website.

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The 5 Imperative Elements for a Successful Website Design in 2017

As the years pass by, we see fresh arrivals of new website design elements and styles. As a matter of course, it is imperative to include those key ingredients as they successfully help you to evoke out your brand’s voice in the best possible way. While it’s certainly not necessary to fit and flaunt every emerging element on your website, but at the core, many of them have the potential to improve your visitor’s experience at a much significant level.

Let’s find out the best recipe of what it takes to meet your modern audience’s expectations in 2017. Save it in your arsenal.

Revealing the top 5 Website Elements That Will Work Wonders In 2017:

Element #1: Unusual, Unique and Bold Typography

There is an assortment of companies, which follows their own font or typography in order to speak their brand’s voice. Fonts are something that nestles down deep somewhere in the visitor’s mind and immediately helps them to differentiate between you and your competitor. So, while choosing your font better to ensure you are close to express your brand’s identity through typography. For e.g. your selection of typography can give hints about the domain of your business like whether it is functional, insightful, hilarious, serious or anything other. So be specific.

Element #2: Modern Aesthetics with Giant Product Images

For an aesthetically pleasing website, visual elements play a crucial role you can’t dodge. Modernizing your website design by adding large, responsive and panoramic product images can give an immersive experience, which undoubtedly manages to grab the eyeballs of any visitor crossing by. Additionally, adding background videos with overlapping text that marry well with your brand’s voice is the key takeaway for increasing customer’s attention and retention.

Element #3: Inclusion of Labeled Hamburger Menus

It is likely that most websites you cross through will have a long menu of options to choose from. Albeit they are good for direct accessibility, but they fail to keep up by occupying a whopping screen space. This loophole can be covered up by the hidden, or (labeled) hamburger menu. The basic advantage of using this hidden menu is you are directly removing a busy navigation of your website which makes the user experience distraction free, by giving them a clear path to explore your website which in turn improves the likelihood of the customer to land on the desired page without being overwhelmed.

Element #4: Intuitiveness

Being a business owner, you must be clear in your views of the expectations an average user wants from you! Determining the clear motive of visitors when they come to your website will help your users feel like you know exactly what they want. The winning point to remember is “The fewer clicks required, the better the chances that you’ll make a sale during that first visit”!

Element #5: Content Will Always Remain the king

Gone are the trends when the content was splashed in terra sized facts. After the increasing penchant of popular social media sites like Instagram, Twitter… the most fashionable way of stuffing content is by keeping it well articulated, to-the-point and in the most condensed way. Much promotional and informative content is obscure and verbose.

Hope that helps! But make sure you stay wise in choosing the right website development company that strictly abide by the changing technology trends and brings to you the best while impeding the old dwindling trends.

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